At the RESER conference in Copenhagen, Denmark, 11 September 2015, for the first time Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering IAO presented to the service-research community a new service engineering reference model for developing e-mobility services. The approach is the foundation for a well-grounded, application-oriented innovation model that is intended to support companies in developing and marketing new services and business models for the field of electric mobility systematically.
The Service Engineering reference model consists of six levels: (1) User analysis and user integration, (2) Configuration mechanism, (3) Process-activity model, (4) Organisational arrangements, (5) Methods and tools, as well as (6) Practical examples. The model is based on the systematic approach of service engineering and connects it with new elements, such as configurability, agility, service prototyping and open service innovation.
What are the characteristics and advantages of the model?
- The approach supports company representatives in distinguishing customers and e-mobility users, and in integrating them systematically into the development process. Thereby, the acceptance of e-mobility offerings on the market can be enhanced.
- With an intelligent configuration mechanism, it is possible to adapt the process-activity model, the organisational arrangements and the chosen methods and tools flexibly according to any development context.
- The actual process-activity model for new service development enables an integrated design of business model and service concept. To achieve a short time to market, to integrate diverse stakeholders according to actual needs and to keep costs and risks as low as possible, the process-activity model follows an agile approach with focus on prototyping and testing. Thus, a new-service development project for electric mobility is divided in a conceptual design phase and a detailed design phase. Accordingly, up to three main test phases and further optional iterations are suggested—depending on the complexity of the service. Besides the actual process-activity model, the link to idea- and strategy development is described, in order to support in particular companies that are new on the e-mobility market and that are seeking for guidance.
- The innovation model further comprehends role models and support of an agile project management for new-service development projects. In particular in the context of electric mobility, the aspect of cooperation and the need for an integrated ICT-support is considered by enabling short, harmonised (also: parallel) development cycles and close interaction with numerous stakeholders.
- To practically enable new service development in business, Fraunhofer IAO creates a carefully selected, compact catalogue of well-grounded methods and tools. This selection supports both the actual service and business model development and the agile project management.
- Selected examples from business practice will finally illustrate the whole process.
How has the model been developed?
The model is based on five fundamental requirements that have been derived from a comprehensive analysis. The analysis phase synthesizes a constitutional literature research on electric mobility and services (incl. new-service development models), an evaluation of 250 publicly funded e-mobility projects in Germany, an expert study with 27 representatives (esp. requirements of and recommendations for practitioners), an evaluation of 85 methods for user analysis and user integration, as well as first findings from international case studies.
What are the next steps?
The model has been shortly discussed after the presentation from scientific perspective. The feedback will be considered in the next development phase. Furthermore, the results from a survey planned for the beginning of 2016 will be considered. In the context of the survey, factors of user orientation, configurability, agility in new service development, methods and tools used, as well as organisational arrangements will be added and consolidated. After the amelioration of the model, it will be tested and validated in business practice. Based on this, Fraunhofer IAO refines recommendations for practitioners for developing new services and business models in electric mobility. In addition, a guideline for applying the configurable, agile innovation model will be created.
The research work underlying the presentation at the conference, are published in a paper authored by the Fraunhofer researchers Sabrina Cocca and Michaela Friedrich.
In case of questions concerning the innovation model, you are invited to turn to the project management on the side of Fraunhofer IAO. If you wish for regular news from the project DELFIN, you are free to use our RSS– or Twitter feed.